|Water Management Tool||Controlled Water Transport|
|Frequent Questions||AquariusRadar is a water management tool based on modern radar and the scientific knowledge gathered by weather scientists to date about how rainfall is generated. This acquired knowledge, along with the tremendous advances in the NOAA/NWS NEXRAD System of weather radars will allow water managers to enhace the possibilities of rainfall in designated areas of water storage; reservoirs, snowpack, and acquifer recharge zones. It is important to keep in mind that the AquariusRadar, while a weather moderation method, is not a rainmaking effort and has limited control of regional storms, flooding, and drought. It is a water transport method that will be used during periods of excess rainfall and can make the available local rainfall more useful by allowing transport to and storage in the clean environment. Directed microwave energy will become a part of the local weather moderation science. Superior to cloud seeding, microwave energy provides efficient and rapid moderation of local rain clouds for the transport of water.||Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, Ray E. Stanford, Michael Pogue, coordinators. 2006. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: NBII Mountain Prairie Information Node. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/|
|Given a case of two similar environments, for example a hot and humid summer's day, an unstable atmosphere, and two Kansas wheat fields, a significant rain making cloud developes over one and nothing at all over the other. Why don't rain clouds develope over both? Scientists now know that "similiar" is not good enough. The absence of exacting beginning atmospheric conditions, complex cloud physics of probability, entropy, and something called chaos theory will determine where rain clouds develope. The microwave heating effect of AquariusRadar changes the initial conditions of the cloud developement. A cumulonimbus raincell is a dynamic non-linear system whose growth is impacted by the initial starting conditions and competition for growth from surrounding clouds. Hence the butterfly wing 's impact upon cloud formation, regional weather, and global climate are real possibilities. More chaos theory here. From a practical standpoint, if one butterfly can have an impact, a million butterflies should certainly have influence in the physics of a single rain cloud. This is the effect of AquariusRadar...acting to add energy of even distribution similar to millions and millions of fluttering wings. If you never doubt that the microwave oven will heat your tea or coffee and you are familiar with Chaos theory, then you will understand the power of AquariusRadar for transporting water. While cloud seeding increases the instability and rain producing capability of cumulonimbus clouds, microwave heating decreases the instability and decreases the immediate rain fall from a cloud such that the moisture lofted naturally by the cloud becomes available to competing clouds and is transported to a desirable storage area. Obviously, microwave heating is only used when an overabundance of rainfall and a clean storage are available.||Edward Lorenz, pioneer weather scientist, predicted this capability over 50 years ago.|
|Stormwater Abatement||The microsecond pulses of energy of the AquariusRadar microwave beam starts at an equivalant gigawatt(10 plus 9) level and with spacial dispersion acts upon individual rain cloud droplets at a microwatt(10 minus 6) level. The individual storm cells may be initiated by air mass instability, frontal lifting, or mountain lifting, but the actual power or energy for vertical cloud growth comes from the latent heat of the water vapor. Microwave heating slows the condensation of water and the resulting release of latent heat. The thunderstorm cannot grow at a fast pace.|
|Cloud Seeding Augmentation
|The cloud droplets are continuously condensing (releasing latent heat energy and thus warming the air) or evaporating (taking up latent heat and cooling the air). When the AquariusRadar pencil beam microwave energy is directed at the base of the developing cell, the water droplets absorb a tiny amount of energy that enhaces the chances that an individual droplet will evaporate and cool the surrounding air. Any point in the vertical developement is dependant on what energy is released below. The added microwave energy, while tiny compared to the energy scale of the developing cell, now has adiabatic leverage because it is directed as a focused beam on the cloud base. The energy absorbed from the surrounding air by the evaporating droplet of water is many times greater than the microwave energy expended to make the droplet "tend" towards evaporation. Adiabatic leverage is achieved. This energy also acts upon the Bergeron process of rain formation at the critical development phase. The microwave energy is absorbed readily by water droplets and not at all by ice crystals. Thus the super saturation advantage of ice over liquid cloud droplets is lessened. Utilized upon developing storm cells where the dynamics for growth are continuing, the microwave heating action simply delays formation of the targeted rain cell, allowing competing rain cells to the left or right of the microwave beam to uptake the moisture that the targeted storm would normally utilize for growth. Thus water is transported. This is cited as a positve mode. When AquariusRadar is employed on mature storms, where the storm dynamic physics are in decline, rainfall is lessened with additional moisture held aloft. When the operations are continuous, a negative mode, the rainfall is reduced. Continous (negative) mode might only be used for stormwater abatement. The ratio of storm to radar energy is so large that the casual observer will not see any difference in rainfall. As is the case for cloud seeding, little immediate evidence will be available because no rainfall amount can be determined in advance. Only long term analysis of the NexRad rainfall data will show increased moisture in the storage area. The degree of increase and the economic viability will be the major area of study of any testing conducted by University PI(s). For those seeking an example of microwave energy doing anything to local weather, please visit Radar Rainshadow at the page link below.|
|Radar Rain Shadow available from this page>
Radar Rain Shadow
|The microwave energy is focused on the cloud base where a tiny change in water molecule temperature has dramatic effect on condensation rates. Attempting to heat the upper portions of the cloud(-35 degrees F) would be useless.
AquariusRadar is a "rob Peter to pay Paul" type system and operates as a cost effective pure water transport system only as long as there are abundant rainfall in the control area and a lofting mechanism in the "down wind" target environment; competing thunderstorms, mountains-elevation lifting, air mass instabilities-cyclones, or cold/warm fronts.
|Gulf of Mexico