AquariusRadar A Test Proposal for California
A test of the AquariusRadar concept could be conducted on the west coast with the co-operation of the U. S. DoD. The East coast sites mentioned on other pages is preferred because they can operate on raincells moving out to sea while those on the west coast are moving onshore. Keep in mind that AquariusRadar is a "rob Peter to pay Paul" system. No one wants their weather moderated if they are unsure of the outcome (see Project Whitetop). The California Energy Commissions can, however, permit weather modification programs. The Commission also conducts the PIER program. PIER is Public Interest Energy Research and is a prime source of grant funding. This page supports the idea that the test funding can be accomplished by a PIER funded grant. An important part of PIER is matching grants or funding from corporate or other "entities". Because the test is concerned with water(snowpack enhancement), the corporate funding match might come from PG&E(Pacific Gas Electric) and SCE(SoCal Edison). Other entities might be irrigation districts, municipal water (like LA Water and Power), or U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. California's recently enacted Integrated Regional Water Management (IRWR), supervised by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) provides plentiful funding for bona fide stakeholders for grants. This page is designed to spark the interest of a IRWR plan member agency to sponsor the grant application. So what would 5 year grant for testing cover?
The basics of a hypothetical funding grant follows:

-Purpose......Demonstrate Increased snowpack in the Sierra Nevada test area
...................using the AquariusRadar concept.
-Personnel Funding
--BS............FT/ salaried co-ordinator 56K/yr for 5yrs............280K
--PhD Earth Physics--PT/ Cal Poly principal investigator(PI) for 5yrs.....200K
--Physics-------PT/ Cal Poly post graduate assistant to the PI.......100K
--Computer/IT---Pt/ Cal Poly post graduate assistant to the PI.......100K
--Tech----------Pt/ AquariusRadar Technician for FPQ-6 operate.......60k
--Tech----------PT/ AquariusRadar Technician for FPQ-6 operate.......60K
--Tech----------PT/ AquariusRadar Technician for FPQ-6 operate.......60K
Hardware Funding
--Pillar Point AFS Operating Location FPQ-6 Radar DoD lease $1/yr......$5
--Pillar Point AFS hi-speed commercial link for WSR88 data(NexRad).... 10K
--Cal Poly San Luis Obispo campus commercial link for WSR88 data...... 10K
--TITAN Weather WSR88 Data Processing Software(2 copies).............165K
--Boulder Creek flood gauges with auto reporting........................20K
--Sierra Nevada test area snow gauges with auto reporting.............50K
Travel Expenses
---Co-ordinator.........................4K/yr.........................20K
---Cal Poly PI..........................2K/yr.........................10K

Total expenses.................................................... 1.135M

PIER grant.........................................................620K
PG&E match.........................................................200K
SCE match..........................................................200K
LA Water and Power.................................................100K
Bureau of Reclamation..............................................120K
DoD................................................................Unk
Total grant funds...................................................1.140M

Operational Test scenerio:
The Point Pillar, AFS FPQ-6 radar(the AquariusRadar) operates upon selected rain cells approaching the Coast as determined by the Titan software NexRad data vectors. The vectors must indicate that the cell will pass within the Pescadero Creek/Boulder Creek/San Lorenzo River drainage basin of the Santa CruZ mountains. Further, the radiation of energy upon the rain cell can only be done when the Boulder Creek flood gauge is at normal or higher or has a current low level but is experiancing a rapid level increase that is expected to flood within 12 hrs. Radiation of energy will end when the NexRad data indicates the rain cell has stopped further development or the rainfall has decreased or the rain cell is no longer over open water. The TiTAN Rainfall data will be recorded 15 minutes before and until 15 minutes after the radar radiation time. After passing over the Santa Cruz, the cell vector will be extended as far as the software will permit to determine where the cell would cross the Sierra Nevada 6Kft altitude line. This vector and point will be recorded for each rain cell. The Cal Poly principal investigator will compile snowfall data from the gauges and determine if there is a correlation between the snow depths of the target area as compared to nearby non-targeted areas and further if the changes revealed are in concert with Santa Cruz drainage basin flood levels over the 5 year term of the test.
The Pillar Point FPQ-6 at Half Moon Bay is similar to this one pictured on the Ideal Candidates page.




















Update Sept 2013: Fire scorches Mt. Diablo; blackened mountainsides subject to winter storm erosion and mudslides. The Pillar Point radar can be used to protect the Mt. Diablo from erosion by transporting moisture to other areas of the Coast Range and Diablo ranges and to the Sierra Nevada. See an example of how a large radar transports water from the rain shadow area (Bonifay, Fl.) to the above average area(Eglin AFB, Fl)NW Florida Rain shadow




















Rain and snow guages on Mt. Hamilton and near peaks can also be included in the data to find if water transfer from the coast mountains is occuring in the Southern Diablo Range.
Hydrology Concept email me- better yet E-mail your State representative or Congress person and ask what they are doing about California's water shortage.

Update Dec 2012: University of California scientists continue to spend millions of dollars in funding and resources in the search for habitable planets in the nearby star systems. Some planets, as close as 15 light years distant, may have water. How this helps thirsty California is yet unknown. Meanwhile, back on earth, no real scientific research is ongoing in an attempt to bring more water to California.
The AquariusRadar test can only be performed during normal or flood rainfall periods. The local control area must have thier natural share of water.
Snowpack Enhancement An earlier and smaller relative of the FPQ-6 family of radars is the FPS-16 class of instrumentation radars. With only slightly less ERP( there are a few "super 16s" that have an ERP equal to the FPQ-6) the FPS-16 at Point Pillar makes this site an excellent choice for the test, the two radars being able to "temper" twice the number of storms. Fixed sites, regardless of the number of radars, are limited by the time of the storm's passage. The optimum utilization is the shipboard AquariusRadar as shown on the So Cal Operations page, which can operate upon a single storm system for many hours, sometimes days. Similar test radars are available at San Nicolas Island, Ca.(DoD), Wallops Island, Va.(NASA) and Patrick AFB,Fl.(DoD). These sites have NexRad coverage of off-shore control and target areas.
Stormwater Abatement The Principal Investigator(PI) could be recruited from among many California universities. Cal Poly is used in this hypothetical case. The co-ordinator could be a state employee or a corporate employee from one of the matching entities. Any of a number of high powered instrumentation radars operated by the DoD on the Southern California Coast could be employed. The normal activity for these radars is fair weather so that interference with thier normal schedules by the AquariusRadar test should not be a problem. The overtime for radar operators is included in the budget as many operations will be at irregular hours. Update Feb 2014-The Northern California rains have helped alleviate the severe drought in the northern part of the state, but extreme drought persists in the rest of the state. Some minor flooding has occurred in the North; flood waters surge to sea with no new storage capability on hand. Even in the aftermath of extreme 2013 drought, California seems unable to think, much less prepare, new water storage mechanisms.
Update Jan 19, 2010-- Ben Lomand and the high country above Santa Cruz are once again threatened with flooding as strong El Nino Pacific storms push ashore. Update Mar 24, 2011--The high country above Santa Cruz is again pounded by spring storms with flooding and several portions of Coast Highway in the Big Sur are destroyed. The radars at San Nicholas Island could be used for testing as well.
Hail Suppression The entire effort is dependant upon the DoD releasing the Pillar Point radar's time for a civilian test. While maintenance costs are a consideration, these radars operate for hundreds of hours without failure of major components. Beyond the scope of the grant, the controlling state agency( the Energy Commision) and the DoD would have to draw up a memorandum of agreement outlining the operations during the period of the test. Operational note: Radiation upon rain cells in early developement is prohibited, except in the case of extreme local flooding. Only fully developed or mature rain cells are targeted by the radar's microwave beam. This ensures maximum natural moisture lifting by the rain cell. Early operation on a developing cell can result in reduced overall precipitation. The rainfall/moisture prevented from flooding the San Lorenzo basin, after crossing the Central Valley, is stored as snow when lofted by the Sierra Nevada.
Southern California Operations 2013 has been the worst drought year ever recorded for California. The high pressure system that persists and prevents temperate cyclones from crossing California could be penetrated by powerful Aleutian Low pressure storms enhanced by the Aquariusradar aboard ships at sea.
Gulf of Mexico Operations Notice: The DoD allows civilian use of the Pillar Point radars by bona fide stakeholders in State research projects. California post graduates seeking Doctoral or Masters thesis in physics or the earth sciences should consider this project if your school has a sponsoring PI with physics or earth science research history.
Frequent Questions